Hydrocephalus Glossary


abdomen
The cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvis


achondroplasia dwarfism
The most common cause of dwarfism, caused by abnormal development of the cartilage and bones. Achondroplasia leads to shortened and thickened bones, especially in the limbs. The trunk of the body, and the head, will usually be of normal size. There are often changes to the development of the face such as a prominent forehead and changes to the the shape of upper jaw. Development of the foramen magnum and the spinal canal may lead to hydrocephalus.


abdominal
To with the abdominal viscera



Alzheimer's disease
A disease of the nervous system. Mostly the effects are of cognitive impairments, agitation and emotional outbursts often occur. Memory is often affected; this leads to confusion due to the difficulty of remembering everyday tasks. In later stages there is widespread atrophy of the brain.



aneurysm
A local dilation of an artery



anterior
At, or towards, the front



antibiotics
A drug which destroys bacteria


antisiphon device
A device which prevents siphoning see the Antisiphon page


aplasia
Defective development of tissue or organ


apraxia
The inability to recognise common items or perform correct movements


aqueduct of Sylvius
A passage which connects the third and fourth ventricles


aqueductal stenosis
Aqueductal stenosis is the enlargement of the lateral and 3rd ventricles with a normal 4th ventricle


arachnoid
A web-like membrane covering the brain. Located between the dura and pia matter.


arachnoid villi
The protrusions in the arachnoid where the CSF is reabsorbed into the blood stream


Arnold-Chiari malformation
A rare congenital anomaly in which two parts of the brain, the brainstem and the cerebellum, are longer than normal and protrude down into the spinal canal. In most cases, symptoms begin during infancy; however onset of symptoms may be delayed until adolescence or adulthood. Symptoms usually include vomiting, muscle weakness in the head and face, difficulty swallowing, and varying degrees of mental impairment. Paralysis of the arms and legs may also occur.
Adults and adolescents with Chiari malformation who previously were asymptomatic may show signs of progressive brain impairment as they grow older, such as involuntary, rapid, downward eye movements. Other symptoms include dizziness, headache, double vision, deafness, an impaired ability to coordinate movement, and episodes of acute pain in and around the eyes.


arthroscopy
The examination of a joint using an endoscope

aspiration
The removal of fluids from a body cavity by means of suction

atretic
Lacking in natural openings

atrium
One of the upper chambers of the heart(pleural= atria)


atrophy
The wasting away of part of the body due to degeneration of the cells.


Bovie cautery
An electrical current is used to heat a treatment filament or a tip. The tip becomes extremely hot and is then used to transfer heat to the tissue, producing a thermal clinical effect


Burr hole
A hole drilled into the skull, this process is called trepanation


butterfly needle

butterfly


calcification
The depositing of calcium oxide

cannula
A type of needle used for the delivery, or the draining, of fluids from the body<


catheter
A tube used for the drainage of a liquid


carbonic anhydrase
An enzyme. It affects the absorption of carbon dioxide in haemoglobin. It also catalyses the formation of carbinic acid in the stomach


cauda
The bundle of sacral and lumbar nerves with which the spinal chord terminates


caudal
To do with the cauda


cautery
A device which used a red hot wire to cauterize a tissue


cauterize
To cut using heat


cerebrospinal fluid
See the CSF document


choroid plexus
Structures lining the floor of the lateral ventricle and the roof of the third and fourth ventricles. The choroid plexus is the junction between the blood stream and the ventricles. The choroid plexus allows nutrient to pass into the CSF, and allows waste back into the blood stream.

circulatory system
The system which caries blood around the body.


cisterns
Local enlargements of the subarachnoid space


claustrophobia
A fear of confined spaces


coagulate
To clot.(coagulation= the thickening of a bodily fluid)


commissure
Fibres connecting different parts of the brain


coronal
To do with the top(corronal sutere= the area on the top of an infants head where dhe bones have not fused)


craniocephalic
Large head created by a hydrocephalic brain


craniosynostosis
Result of apposition and overlapping of the cranial sutures in an infant, following decompression of hydrocephalus


craniotomy
Surgery which includes opening of the skull


cysts
A tumour with a membranous capsule which contains fluid

Dandy-Walker malformation
The Dandy-Walker syndrome is a malformation of the brain that involves the maldevelopment of the cerebellum (hindbrain), associated with a cystic enlargement of this area, and frequently hydrocephalus.


dementia
A condition where the cognitive functions and the memory are failing


dilated
Opened (eg. the iris of the eye is dilated to let in more light)


diptheroids
False membranes which grow on mucus membranes


distal
Placed further away.


dna
The matter which contains all the information needed by a cell.


dura mater
A tough and fibrous mater which is partially attached to the cranial cavity The cranial dura matter has 2 layers, the periosteal (outer layer) and the meningeal (inner layer)


ectopia
Abnormal placement


electrocardiogram
The resulting output from an electocardiograph


electrocardiograph
An apparatus which measures the electrical activity of the heart


endoscope
A device which passes light into a body cavity and allows the body cavity to be viewed

endoscopy
The usage of an endoscope to examining internal body cavities


encysted
Enclosed in a cyst


ependyma
The membrane lining of the cerebral ventricles and the spinal chord


epilepsy
Disturbances in the medial temporal lobe structures. The effects are convulsive seizures of varying severity


etiology
The cause of diseases, and the study thereof


fenestrate
To cut an opening in a membrane, often to allow fluid to escape.


fiberoptic
Using glass strands to pass light.


fontanel
A soft membranous space between the cranial bones of an infant


foramen magnum
A large opening at the base of the skull, through which the lower part of the brain stem connects to the spinal chord.


foramena of Luschka
Two lateral openings that serve to connect the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space


foramen of Magendie
A medial opening that serves to connect the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space


foramina of Monroe
A medial opening that serves to connect lateral ventricles to the third ventricle


fossa
A small depression or pit


fulminating
Occurring suddenly, and quick to take course


glioma
A malignant growth of nerve connective tissue


Hematoma
(haematoma) A haemorrhage in the brain


haemorrhage
A bleeding into a body cavity


haemostat
A clamp used for stopping blood flow


hydrocephalus
For a concise explanation see: here


hypernatremia
A condition of increased sodium in the body, usually caused by water loss.


hypophyseal fossa
(See sella turcica)


hypotension
Low pressure


Idiopathic intercranial hypertension (IIH)

also called "pseudotumor cerebri" is a condition where there is an imbalance in the pressure regulation of the CSF pressure, and and an empty sella.

IIH is characterised by headache, papilledema, nausea, auditory visual problems, and elevated intercranial pressure.

In IIH, unlike in hydrocephalus, these effects occur with-out enlargement of the ventricles.

The CSF will have roughly twice the normal pressure.
The cause of IIH is unknown, the condition occures most often in women in their 30's.


incisions
A cut


indolent
Slow; eg. slow to heal


inion
The inion is the most prominent projection of the occipital bone at the posterioinferior (lower rear) part of the skull.


intravenous
Within a vein


jugular
To do with the neck (eg jugular vein)


Klippel-Feil syndrome
Fussion of, or reduction in numbers, of the cervical vertibrea. Affected children have short necks and low hairlines, movement of the neck is limited. Compression of the spinal chord can cause paraplegia. Can cause retardation or learning dificulties.


lateral
To the side


lethargy
A condition of drosiness or stupor


lesions
A wound or injury. A structural change in an organ.


ligature
A thread used to tie a vessel


lumbar
To do with the lower section of the spine


lumbar puncture
A prodedure in which a canula is inserted into the spinal canal, usually to extract or measure the pressure of the CSF.


meninges
The membranes covering the brain and spinal chord(the dura matter, the arachnoid, and the pia matter). They protect and nourish the brainstem and spinal cord


meningitis
Inflamation of the meninges


microgyria
A disorder of neuronal migration characterized by an excess of secondary sulcation of the cerebral hemispheres resulting in a brain with a complex convolutional pattern.


myelomeningocele
A herniation of the meninges and the spinal chord, a seen in spina bifida


neonatal
Refering to the first months of life


neonate
A child in the first 2 years of life


nuclei
Alural of nucleus.


nucleus
The dna containing part of the cell, it controls the activity of the cell.


nystagmus
Involuntary rapid movement of the eyeball


occipital
Refering to the back of the head


occlusion
A blockage


optic nerves
Nerves to do with the image from the eye


orthopaedic
To do with the correction of deformities


osmolarity
To do with regulation of liquid passing through a cell membrane


P wave
The P wave is caused by the depolarization of the right and left atrium


Palpation
Contraction


papilledema
Swelling of the eye's nerve

papilloma
A growth of epithelial tissue


parenchyma
The lining of the spine and brain


Parinaud's syndrome
Paralysis of upward gaze secondary to compression of the midbrain tectum


Parkinson's
Uncontrolable contractions of muscles, particularily hands and feet


patency
Openness, being open or exposed.


pathology
The cause of a disease, or the study thereof


pathophysiology
The causing physical factor


pediatric
To do with childrens medicical problems


peritoneal
To do with the the peritoneum


peritoneal cavity
The cavity in the abdomen in which all of the intestines and abdominal organs are located


peritoneum
The membrame lining of the abdominal cavity


peritonitis
Inflamation of the peritoneum


pharmacological
To do with drugs or medicines


pineal gland
A small cone shaped structure on the base of the brain, it produces hormones which are thought to affect the actions of several other glands such as the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads.


Platybasia
Is a deformity where the angle formed by the basisphenoid and the clivus, normally 130-140 degrees, is increased with flattening of the skull base


pleura
The membrame lining the thorax


pleural
To do with the pleura


pleural space
The cavity within the chest which surrounds the lungs


polygyria
Excess of the normal number of convolutions of the brain.


porencephaly
Abnormal cavity within brain tissue, usually resulting from outpouching of a lateral ventricle


proximal
Possitioned close by


pseudo
A prefix. meaning false


pus
Yellow substance consisting of dead leucocytes, bacteria, debris of cells, and tissue fluid. It is the result of pagocytes destroying bacteria


radioisotope
A substance which gives of radiation


sagital
Arrow shaped


saline
Containing salt(s). A 0.9% salt solition for replaceing body fluids


scintillation
An abnormal area of the visual field that is positive and luminous, sometimes becoming hemianopic and appearing in a migraine aura.


scoliosis
Abnormal curviture of the spine


sella turcica
The sella turcica is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull, saddle is known as the hypophyseal fossa, which holds the pituitary gland.


septicemia
Infection on the blood suply


silicones
Organic compounds containing silica, which are repellant to water


sinus
A venous channel, especialy within the cranium


siphoning
The drawing of a liquid from one place to another, by utilizing the fact that liquids flow to the place of lower pressure


slit ventricle syndrome
A condition where the ventricles are much smaller than usual


sonogram
An image gathered by usage of sound waves, this removes the risk caused by radiation. A sonogram is a quicker method of scanning, and the apparatus is more portable.


spina bifida
A congenital condition where the meninges and nerves protrude through and opening in the lower spinal column


Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone.


Staphylococcus
A type, or genus, of bacteria.These a mostly harmless, and are normally found one the skin of humans and other animals


stenosis
Narrowing of a vessel(blood or CSF vessels)


sternomastoid muscle
A large muscle between the sternum and the head. This muscle is involved in turning and flexing the head.


stupor
A state where a person deos not react or interact with its suroundings


stylette
1: A fine wire that is run through a catheter, cannula, or hollow needle to keep it stiff or clear of debris.
2: A surgical probe.


subarachnoid spaces
Spaces which contain CSF which serve as a cusion for the brain and spine


subcutaneous
Under the skin


subdural
Under the dura mater


suprasellar region
Above the sella turcica


suture
1: A stitch, or a series of stitches closing a wound; The bones at the top of the head with close after birth
2. The fibrous area between the plates of the skull which allow the plates of the skull to grow.

syrinx
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord (syringomyelia) or brain stem


tectal
Concerning the tectum


tectum
The roof of the midbrain, it contains reflex centers for visual and auditory inpulses


tentorial notch
A oval opening in the tentorium, which surrounds the midbrain. The spine passes through the tentorial notch.


theca
A sheath, eg the covering of the spinal chord


three way stopcock
A three-way stopcock can be used on IV tubing to turn off one solution and turn on another.


thrombosis
the formation of a thrombus


thrombus
a stationary blood clot caused by the coagulation of the blood vessel.


Torcular Herophili
the connecting point of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus.


torso
The bulk of the body. The body excluding the limbs and head.


toxoplasmosis
A condition of enlarged glands and fever, caused by a protozoon


trauma
Damage to the body


umbilicus
Tha navel; the scar in the center of the abdomen


urological
To do with diseases of the urinary tract


utero
To do with the uterus(womb)


vascular
Relating to vessels; consisting largely of vessels


vein of Galen
A large vein which collects venous blood from the internal cerebral veins and two basal veins.


venous
To do with the veins; consisting largely of veins


ventriculostomy
Surgery of the ventricles


ventricles
1) A fluid (CSF) filled spaces in the brain
2) the lower chambers of the heart



vermis
The part of the brain which connects the the two hemispheres


villi
Finger-like projections from a surphase.


viscera
The internal organs of the body


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