The cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvis
The most common cause of dwarfism, caused by abnormal development of the cartilage and bones. Achondroplasia leads to shortened and thickened bones, especially in the limbs. The trunk of the body, and the head, will usually be of normal size. There are often changes to the development of the face such as a prominent forehead and changes to the the shape of upper jaw. Development of the foramen magnum and the spinal canal may lead to hydrocephalus.
To with the abdominal viscera
A disease of the nervous system. Mostly the effects are of cognitive impairments, agitation and emotional outbursts often occur. Memory is often affected; this leads to confusion due to the difficulty of remembering everyday tasks. In later stages there is widespread atrophy of the brain.
A local dilation of an artery
At, or towards, the front
A drug which destroys bacteria
Defective development of tissue or organ
The inability to recognise common items or perform correct movements
aqueduct of Sylvius
A passage which connects the third and fourth ventricles
Aqueductal stenosis is the enlargement of the lateral and 3rd ventricles with a normal 4th ventricle
A web-like membrane covering the brain. Located between the dura and pia matter.
The protrusions in the arachnoid where the CSF is reabsorbed into the blood stream
A rare congenital anomaly in which two parts of the brain, the brainstem and the cerebellum, are longer than normal and protrude down into the spinal canal. In most cases, symptoms begin during infancy; however onset of symptoms may be delayed until adolescence or adulthood. Symptoms usually include vomiting, muscle weakness in the head and face, difficulty swallowing, and varying degrees of mental impairment. Paralysis of the arms and legs may also occur.
Adults and adolescents with Chiari malformation who previously were asymptomatic may show signs of progressive brain impairment as they grow older, such as involuntary, rapid, downward eye movements. Other symptoms include dizziness, headache, double vision, deafness, an impaired ability to coordinate movement, and episodes of acute pain in and around the eyes.
The examination of a joint using an endoscope
The removal of fluids from a body cavity by means of suction
Lacking in natural openings
One of the upper chambers of the heart(pleural= atria)
The wasting away of part of the body due to degeneration of the cells.
An electrical current is used to heat a treatment filament or a tip. The tip becomes extremely hot and is then used to transfer heat to the tissue, producing a thermal clinical effect
A hole drilled into the skull, this process is called trepanation
The depositing of calcium oxide
A type of needle used for the delivery, or the draining, of fluids from the body<
A tube used for the drainage of a liquid
An enzyme. It affects the absorption of carbon dioxide in haemoglobin. It also catalyses the formation of carbinic acid in the stomach
The bundle of sacral and lumbar nerves with which the spinal chord terminates
To do with the cauda
A device which used a red hot wire to cauterize a tissue
To cut using heat
Structures lining the floor of the lateral ventricle and the roof of the third and fourth ventricles. The choroid plexus is the junction between the blood stream and the ventricles. The choroid plexus allows nutrient to pass into the CSF, and allows waste back into the blood stream.
The system which caries blood around the body.
Local enlargements of the subarachnoid space
A fear of confined spaces
To clot.(coagulation= the thickening of a bodily fluid)
Fibres connecting different parts of the brain
To do with the top(corronal sutere= the area on the top of an infants head where dhe bones have not fused)
Large head created by a hydrocephalic brain
Result of apposition and overlapping of the cranial sutures in an infant, following decompression of hydrocephalus
Surgery which includes opening of the skull
A tumour with a membranous capsule which contains fluid
The Dandy-Walker syndrome is a malformation of the brain that involves the maldevelopment of the cerebellum (hindbrain), associated with a cystic enlargement of this area, and frequently hydrocephalus.
A condition where the cognitive functions and the memory are failing
Opened (eg. the iris of the eye is dilated to let in more light)
False membranes which grow on mucus membranes
Placed further away.
The matter which contains all the information needed by a cell.
A tough and fibrous mater which is partially attached to the cranial cavity The cranial dura matter has 2 layers, the periosteal (outer layer) and the meningeal (inner layer)
The resulting output from an electocardiograph
An apparatus which measures the electrical activity of the heart
A device which passes light into a body cavity and allows the body cavity to be viewed
The usage of an endoscope to examining internal body cavities
Enclosed in a cyst
The membrane lining of the cerebral ventricles and the spinal chord
Disturbances in the medial temporal lobe structures. The effects are convulsive seizures of varying severity
The cause of diseases, and the study thereof
To cut an opening in a membrane, often to allow fluid to escape.
Using glass strands to pass light.
A soft membranous space between the cranial bones of an infant
A large opening at the base of the skull, through which the lower part of the brain stem connects to the spinal chord.
foramena of Luschka
Two lateral openings that serve to connect the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space
foramen of Magendie
A medial opening that serves to connect the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space
foramina of Monroe
A medial opening that serves to connect lateral ventricles to the third ventricle
A small depression or pit
Occurring suddenly, and quick to take course
A malignant growth of nerve connective tissue
(haematoma) A haemorrhage in the brain
A bleeding into a body cavity
A clamp used for stopping blood flow
For a concise explanation see: here
A condition of increased sodium in the body, usually caused by water loss.
(See sella turcica)
Idiopathic intercranial hypertension (IIH)
also called "pseudotumor cerebri" is a condition where there is an imbalance in the pressure regulation of the CSF pressure, and and an empty sella.
IIH is characterised by headache, papilledema, nausea, auditory visual problems, and elevated intercranial pressure.
In IIH, unlike in hydrocephalus, these effects occur with-out enlargement of the ventricles.
The CSF will have roughly twice the normal pressure.
The cause of IIH is unknown, the condition occures most often in women in their 30's.
Slow; eg. slow to heal
The inion is the most prominent projection of the occipital bone at the posterioinferior (lower rear) part of the skull.
Within a vein
To do with the neck (eg jugular vein)
Fussion of, or reduction in numbers, of the cervical vertibrea. Affected children have short necks and low hairlines, movement of the neck is limited. Compression of the spinal chord can cause paraplegia. Can cause retardation or learning dificulties.
A condition of drosiness or stupor
A wound or injury. A structural change in an organ.
A thread used to tie a vessel
To do with the lower section of the spine
A prodedure in which a canula is inserted into the spinal canal, usually to extract or measure the pressure of the CSF.
The membranes covering the brain and spinal chord(the dura matter, the arachnoid, and the pia matter). They protect and nourish the brainstem and spinal cord
Inflamation of the meninges
A disorder of neuronal migration characterized by an excess of secondary sulcation of the cerebral hemispheres resulting in a brain with a complex convolutional pattern.
A herniation of the meninges and the spinal chord, a seen in spina bifida
Refering to the first months of life
A child in the first 2 years of life
Alural of nucleus.
The dna containing part of the cell, it controls the activity of the cell.
Involuntary rapid movement of the eyeball
Refering to the back of the head
Nerves to do with the image from the eye
To do with the correction of deformities
To do with regulation of liquid passing through a cell membrane
The P wave is caused by the depolarization of the right and left atrium
Swelling of the eye's nerve
A growth of epithelial tissue
The lining of the spine and brain
Paralysis of upward gaze secondary to compression of the midbrain tectum
Uncontrolable contractions of muscles, particularily hands and feet
Openness, being open or exposed.
The cause of a disease, or the study thereof
The causing physical factor
To do with childrens medicical problems
To do with the the peritoneum
The cavity in the abdomen in which all of the intestines and abdominal organs are located
The membrame lining of the abdominal cavity
Inflamation of the peritoneum
To do with drugs or medicines
A small cone shaped structure on the base of the brain, it produces hormones which are thought to affect the actions of several other glands such as the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads.
Is a deformity where the angle formed by the basisphenoid and the clivus, normally 130-140 degrees, is increased with flattening of the skull base
The membrame lining the thorax
To do with the pleura
The cavity within the chest which surrounds the lungs
Excess of the normal number of convolutions of the brain.
Abnormal cavity within brain tissue, usually resulting from outpouching of a lateral ventricle
Possitioned close by
A prefix. meaning false
Yellow substance consisting of dead leucocytes, bacteria, debris of cells, and tissue fluid. It is the result of pagocytes destroying bacteria
A substance which gives of radiation
Containing salt(s). A 0.9% salt solition for replaceing
An abnormal area of the visual field that is positive and luminous, sometimes becoming hemianopic and appearing in a migraine aura.
Abnormal curviture of the spine
The sella turcica is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull, saddle is known as the hypophyseal fossa, which holds the pituitary gland.
Infection on the blood suply
Organic compounds containing silica, which are repellant to water
A venous channel, especialy within the cranium
The drawing of a liquid from one place to another, by utilizing the fact that liquids flow to the place of lower pressure
slit ventricle syndrome
A condition where the ventricles are much smaller than usual
An image gathered by usage of sound waves, this removes the risk caused by radiation. A sonogram is a quicker method of scanning, and the apparatus is more portable.
A congenital condition where the meninges and nerves protrude through and opening in the lower spinal column
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone.
A type, or genus, of bacteria.These a mostly harmless, and are normally found one the skin of humans and other animals
Narrowing of a vessel(blood or CSF vessels)
A large muscle between the sternum and the head. This muscle is involved in turning and flexing the head.
A state where a person deos not react or interact with its suroundings
1: A fine wire that is run through a catheter, cannula, or hollow needle to keep it stiff or clear of debris.
2: A surgical probe.
Spaces which contain CSF which serve as a cusion for the brain and spine
Under the skin
Under the dura mater
Above the sella turcica
1: A stitch, or a series of stitches closing a wound; The bones at the top of the head with close after birth
2. The fibrous area between the plates of the skull which allow the plates of the skull to grow.
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord (syringomyelia) or brain stem
Concerning the tectum
The roof of the midbrain, it contains reflex centers for visual and auditory inpulses
A oval opening in the tentorium, which surrounds the midbrain. The spine passes through the tentorial notch.
A sheath, eg the covering of the spinal chord
three way stopcock
A three-way stopcock can be used on IV tubing to turn off one solution and turn on another.
the formation of a thrombus
a stationary blood clot caused by the coagulation of the blood vessel.
the connecting point of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus.
The bulk of the body. The body excluding the limbs and head.
A condition of enlarged glands and fever, caused by a protozoon
Damage to the body
Tha navel; the scar in the center of the abdomen
To do with diseases of the urinary tract
To do with the uterus(womb)
Relating to vessels; consisting largely of vessels
vein of Galen
A large vein which collects venous blood from the internal cerebral veins and two basal veins.
To do with the veins; consisting largely of veins
Surgery of the ventricles
1) A fluid (CSF
) filled spaces in the brain
2) the lower chambers of the heart
The part of the brain which connects the the two hemispheres
Finger-like projections from a surphase.
The internal organs of the body